In aseptic loosening of arthoplasties (hip, knee), inflammation – not caused by external triggers such as bacteria – leads to dissolution of the bone and progressive implant loosening. These processes are the main cause of follow-up surgery. The triggering factors of the inflammation have not yet been clarified. While abrasion or corrosion (‘particle disease’) of prosthesis components are involved, patient-specific influences also play a major role. There is a great need for action to detect the onset of implant loosening at an early stage in order to take countermeasures. In this context, it is not known whether there are factors (biomarkers) which (1) reliably predict aseptic implant loosening, (2) can identify affected patients, (3) reliably distinguish aseptic implant loosening from other causes of implant failure, (4) are able to provide insight into the development of aseptic implant loosening in order to avoid it in the future. The Erwin Röver-Stiftung (https://www.erwin-roever-gruppe.de/index.php) now funds our project in which we strive to answer these questions.